Bernard of Clairvaux: Theologian of the Cross (Cistercian Studies)
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Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Volume 57 , Issue 2 March Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Merton's Theology of Prayer by John J. Silence;: The meaning of silence in the rule of St.
Benedict Cistercian studies series by Ambrose G Wathen. The art of preaching by de Insulis Alanus. Studies in medieval Cistercian history. Russian Mystics by Sergius Bolshakoff. Saint Bernard of Clairvaux : studies commemorating the eighth centenary of his canonization by M. The Spirituality of Western Christendom by E.
Rozanne Elder. An overlooked but absolutely central evaluation of Bernard as theologian and central ecclesiastical figure of his day. Bernard of Clairvaux and the Cistercian Spirit. Translated by Claire Lavoie. Sometimes he oversimplifies complex matters, but the book is a delight to read. Luddy, Ailbe J. Life and Teaching of St. Dublin, UK: M. However dated his treatment, he had great insight into monastic life and mentality.
Vacandard used Bernard in order to argue for the value of medieval Christian culture. First published in Williams, Watkin.
Westminster, MD: Newman, Williams was a professor at the University of Manchester in England and was one of the first English scholars in the 20th century to do serious research on Bernard. This volume first appeared in and every page has marginal footnotes that show how he carefully sifted the primary sources. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
by Lane, Anthony N.S
Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. His preaching, aided by his ascetic looks and simple attire, helped doom the new sects. Both the Henrician and the Petrobrusian faiths began to die out by the end of that year.
Soon afterwards, Henry of Lausanne was arrested, brought before the bishop of Toulouse, and probably imprisoned for life. In a letter to the people of Toulouse, undoubtedly written at the end of , Bernard calls upon them to extirpate the last remnants of the heresy. He also preached against Catharism.
News came at this time from the Holy Land that alarmed Christendom. Christians had been defeated at the Siege of Edessa and most of the county had fallen into the hands of the Seljuk Turks. The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states were threatened with similar disaster.
Deputations of the bishops of Armenia solicited aid from the pope, and the King of France also sent ambassadors.
There was at first virtually no popular enthusiasm for the crusade as there had been in Bernard found it expedient to dwell upon taking the cross as a potent means of gaining absolution for sin and attaining grace. A large platform was erected on a hill outside the city. King and monk stood together, representing the combined will of earth and heaven. The enthusiasm of the assembly of Clermont in , when Peter the Hermit and Urban II launched the first crusade, was matched by the holy fervor inspired by Bernard as he cried, "O ye who listen to me!
Hasten to appease the anger of heaven, but no longer implore its goodness by vain complaints. Clothe yourselves in sackcloth, but also cover yourselves with your impenetrable bucklers. The din of arms, the danger, the labors, the fatigues of war, are the penances that God now imposes upon you.
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Hasten then to expiate your sins by victories over the Infidels, and let the deliverance of the holy places be the reward of your repentance. Deus vult! When Bernard was finished the crowd enlisted en masse; they supposedly ran out of cloth to make crosses. Bernard is said to have given his own outer garments to be cut up to make more.
But an even greater show of support came from the common people. Bernard wrote to the pope a few days afterwards, "Cities and castles are now empty. There is not left one man to seven women, and everywhere there are widows to still-living husbands. Bernard then passed into Germany, and the reported miracles which multiplied almost at his every step undoubtedly contributed to the success of his mission.
Pope Eugenius came in person to France to encourage the enterprise. As in the First Crusade, the preaching inadvertently led to attacks on Jews; a fanatical French monk named Radulphe was apparently inspiring massacres of Jews in the Rhineland, Cologne, Mainz, Worms, and Speyer, with Radulphe claiming Jews were not contributing financially to the rescue of the Holy Land. The archbishop of Cologne and the archbishop of Mainz were vehemently opposed to these attacks and asked Bernard to denounce them.
This he did, but when the campaign continued, Bernard traveled from Flanders to Germany to deal with the problems in person. He then found Radulphe in Mainz and was able to silence him, returning him to his monastery. The last years of Bernard's life were saddened by the failure of the Second Crusade he had preached, the entire responsibility for which was thrown upon him.
Bernard considered it his duty to send an apology to the Pope and it is inserted in the second part of his "Book of Considerations. When his attempt to call a new crusade failed, he tried to disassociate himself from the fiasco of the Second Crusade altogether. Moved by his burning words, many Christians embarked for the Holy Land, but the crusade ended in miserable failure.
The death of his contemporaries served as a warning to Bernard of his own approaching end.https://procobtichunt.tk
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Conrad III and his son Henry died the same year. From the beginning of the year , Bernard felt his death approaching. The passing of Pope Eugenius had struck the fatal blow by taking from him one whom he considered his greatest friend and consoler. Bernard died at age sixty-three on 20 August , after forty years spent in the cloister.
He was buried at the Clairvaux Abbey, but after its dissolution in by the French revolutionary government, his remains were transferred to Troyes Cathedral. Bernard was named a Doctor of the Church in The central elements of Bernard's Mariology are how he explained the virginity of Mary, the "Star of the Sea" , and her role as Mediatrix. John Calvin quotes Bernard several times in support of the doctrine of Sola Fide , which Martin Luther described as the article upon which the church stands or falls.
Calvin also quotes him in setting forth his doctrine of a forensic alien righteousness, or as it is commonly called imputed righteousness.
One day, to cool down his lustful temptation, Bernard threw himself into ice-cold water. Another time, while sleeping in an inn, a prostitute was introduced naked beside him, and he saved his chastity by running.